Monday, August 31, 2015

35/15 Part 4 - Market Square

What is 35/15? Read the Introduction first.

(Note: All 1935 photographs are on the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library Omeka site. They are viewable by clicking the link provided, scrolling to the bottom of the page, then clicking the image.)

   Getting back on our walk, we now approach the Market Square. This would be where you could buy or sell goods. There are also many important buildings and houses on this square.


The Magazine


1936:

2015:

Magazine, August 12, 2015, 2:48pm

   We're going to start with the Magazine, because it's turning 300 years old this year! Not many buildings are that old in America, so it's quite an accomplishment. This original building is most famous for being the setting of the 1775 gunpowder incident, which set Virginians on the path towards revolution. After the capital moved to Richmond, the Magazine served many different purposes, the one that always sticks in my head is it was a dancing school. In 1889, the building was purchased by the Association of the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA for short, now Preservation Virginia). They slightly restored it and used it as a small museum/"collector's cabinet" of 17th and 18th colonial history and memorabilia. In 1934-1935, the APVA allowed Colonial Williamsburg to restore the Magazine. APVA must not have had it open much, for in 1949, CW made a special arrangement with them to open and interpret in the building. It wouldn't be until 1986 when the Foundation finally purchased the Magazine.

   The above photo shows a complete magazine. Judging by its restoration construction time and this YouTube video of Colonial Williamsburg from 1936 (but probably shot in 1935), I believe these Magazine shots were taken in 1936. (3:14 on the video). (But watch that whole thing, it is a treasure trove of Williamsburg after its initial Restoration)

   Differences? The path is much wider. A construction fence for the new Market House is now to the left, a shade tent is to the right. The doors used to have windows and a wooden door frame; now neither exists. The tree Lincoln is under and the one inside the Magazine wall are both now gone. Other trees are much higher. The paint color has changed. The wall has aged. Visible now is the Lightfoot Tenement, a building reconstructed after the initial Restoration.


The Magazine from Farther Away

1936:

2015:

Magazine, August 9, 2015, 10:38am

   Let's take a few steps back to enjoy the 300 year old Magazine some more. Although Market Square now seems cluttered up from this angle, it is only this corner of the Square. The rest is a peaceful green. On the left is the Guardhouse, reconstructed in 1948. The new reconstructed Market House is currently being constructed in front of it. The fences littering this shot will be taken away once construction is complete. On the far, far right is the old Market House, still being used for the time being.

Most of the trees on Market Square are now gone, along with some grass in the foreground. That barrel on the right? It is used as an inconspicuous trash can.

Courthouse

1935:

2015:

Courthouse, August 12, 2015, 3:15pm

   Here is our beloved, column-less courthouse. This original building was used as the courthouse of Williamsburg and James City County from 1770 to 1932. Once a new courthouse was built, the town gave this building over to Colonial Williamsburg. The outside of the building was restored, but the interior was used as the Restoration Archaeology Museum, opening April 24, 1933. The museum closed in 1989 and the interior was reconstructed to reflect an 18th century courthouse in 1991. The wildly popular Order in the Court is now held there five times a week.

   Changes? You can barely see grass in this picture. Oyster shells have taken over. They were adding uplighting to the Courthouse this summer, and the fence pictured came down just last week. Shutters are here now! The benches on the portico, courthouse signs, the window above the door, the horse hitching posts, the trees, the curb, and the lamppost in the forefront are all gone. The cobblestones are barely peeking out through the oyster shells.

   The house in the background on the right has changed names from the Archibald Blair House to the Grissell Hay Lodging House.



Market Square Tavern


1935:

2015:

Market Square Tavern, August 2nd, 2015, 6:44pm

   This is the Market Square Tavern. It is one of the original buildings in town, but I would say only partially. In 1859, part of the building burned down. Clearly, it was rebuilt. The left-hand side is still original though. Guests could rent a room here in the 1930's. Now, it is part of the "Colonial Houses" division of our hotels, and guests can still rent a room here! 

   Benches galore! Gone are the hitching posts, the lamppost, the curb, the flora, and the fauna. A new sign greets visitors to the tavern. New trees obscure 60% of the building. The building still looks great. Two colors are used on the tavern, instead of what looks like three in 1935. The horse stepping stone and two paths to the road are still here. (The side fence isn't jutting out from the building farther, the gate was open). For some reason, the left-hand steps look wider in 1935.


Market Square Tavern Stable Yard


1935:

2015:

Market Square Tavern Stable Yard,
August 2, 2015, 6:00pm

   This is a stable yard! Now it is used for hotel services, bathrooms (building to right), and hotel parking. The door on the center building is blocked now. The lamppost is gone. I have no idea what building is behind the stable house in 1935. It must have been a remaining 19th/20th century building in town, because it is replaced by one of the outbuildings on the Allen-Byrd House property. There are less plants growing around the stable building, but more trees in the foreground. 

   The most surprising difference to me is the addition of the ball and chain on the gate. These can now be found on almost every gate in town. Were they not present at first?

Market Square Kitchen


1935:

2015:

Market Square Tavern Kitchen,
August 12, 2015, 4:40pm

   That is an impressive chimney. The kitchen is a reconstructed building.

   It looks like the lamp from the 1935 stable picture has migrated to this gate now and is not as far into the ground as it used to be. Less plants are present by the kitchen (there was a simple garden between the kitchen and the stables). There is now a garden and trees on the other side of the path.

   Again, the ball and chain on the gate were added after 1935. I didn't notice until writing this post up, so I have no research to go off this. After the initial Restoration, there is more documentation on changes in town, so I'm sure the answer is buried... somewhere.

   Let's go inside the Tavern.


Chimney of the Great Room/Common Room


1935:

2015:

Common Room Fireplace, 2015

   This is in the Great Room in 1935, now called the Common Room. It is open to all the hotel guests in the Market Square Tavern as a meeting/sitting area. This is on the left side of the tavern, so this is the remaining original building portion.

   In 1935, everything looks very prim, proper, and well-lit, like someone spruced it up for a nice camera shoot. In 2015, the room was not spruced up and extra lights were not brought in. The furniture and portraits have all been changed out. The painting over the mantel in 1935 is "Girl With Dove." The fireplace and wood paneling are still the same, and look great!


Great Room/Common Room


1935:

2015:

Common Room, 2015

   Here is the rest of the room. To get your bearings, the cabinet on the left in this picture is the cabinet on the right in the fireplace picture. I love how much wood is used in this room. It's beautiful.

   Most of the furniture has been switched out, but some of the same type of chairs that are around the table in 1935 are still in the room. I am not sure if the door on the left is new. The door across the hall is closed because someone is staying there and closes their door.  

Detail shot at wood in the Common Room
   But seriously. This wood is beautiful in here.


THANK YOU
Thank you to the Williamsburg Inn for letting me see the Common Room in the Market Square Tavern.
Thank you to the Magazine for surviving this long. Here's to another 300 years!

Sources Used:
"The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg" Architectural Record, December 1935
"Behold Williamsburg" Book by Samuel Chamberlin, 1947
"Williamsburg Before and After" Book by George Humphrey Yetter, 1988
"Legacy from the Past" by Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1971
"The Williamsburg Restoration and its Reception by the American Public: 1926-1942," by Thomas H. Taylor, Jr., 1989
20th Century Timeline of Williamsburg, The CW Interpreter, Summer 1999
"Who is Grissell Hay and What is she Doing at Achibald Blair's House?" by Edward Chappell and Patricia Gibbs, Fresh Advices, May 1986
"Colonial Williamsburg Official Guidebook & Map," 1960
"Look Where You've Been..." [Title cut off], CW News, November 27, 1951
Market House Tavern Architectural Report
Colonial Williamsburg: Courthouse

View the whole 35/15 Project:
Introduction
Part 1 - College of William and Mary 
Part 2 - Merchants Square
Part 3 - Buildings that Move
Part 4 - Market Square (You are currently viewing this one)
Part 5 - Ludwell-Paradise
Part 6 - Queen Street to Botetourt Street
Part 7 - Raleigh Tavern
Part 8 - Paints
Part 9 - Botetourt Street to the Capitol Area
Part 10 - Capitol
Part 11 - No Longer Here
Part 12 - Francis and Nicholson Streets
Part 13 - Garden Edition
Part 14 - The Governor's Palace Gardens
Part 15 - Inside the Governor's Palace
Conclusion

Bonus 35/15 Posts:
35/15: A Dessert Order
35/15: Life in Williamsburg in 1935
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper II

Saturday, August 29, 2015

35/15: A Dessert Order

   I had a request from one of my coworkers who heard about my project. She wanted me to recreate some photos that her family had taken back in 1940 in Colonial Williamsburg. Here is a fun quick shoot!


Raleigh Tavern


1940:


2015:


   I had to squat to get this shot. I love how much has not changed. The stepping stone and Raleigh signpost are still in the same place. The horse hitching posts, while they have moved, are still the same design. Sir "Ralegh"* is still over the two front doors, with the same stone steps and curving metal handrails.

   What has changed? The John Carter Store and Unicorn's Horn building is not an empty field anymore, and there are plenty less plants.

* The original bust spells his name wrong, which is reflected in the reproduction now up there.


Capitol


1940:                                                                    2015:


   I had to get even farther down to get the lines on the portico columns in the right spot compared to the wall. I think the photographer was trying to get the whole building in the picture, which is impossible from this view now with the grown tree. There are more paths here now, but less ivy on the wall. My favorite little thing that is still the same is the gutter hole in the wall, I don't know why!


   The 35/15 Photo Project will be visiting the Raleigh and the Capitol more in-depth in later editions. Stay tuned!

   If you would like me to re-shoot your old family photos from Colonial Williamsburg, let me know! Click "Contact Me" on the top of the sidebar to the right.
(Due to time constraints, I will not be able to shoot with regards to shadow.)

What is the 35/15 Photo Project? Read the Introduction.


THANK YOU
   Thank you to Elizabeth Edmonds for sharing your family photos! I hope you and your family enjoy the current day pictures.

Friday, August 28, 2015

35/15 Part 3 - Buildings that Move

What is 35/15? Read the Introduction first.

(Note: All 1935 photographs are on the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library Omeka site. They are viewable by clicking the link provided, scrolling to the bottom of the page, then clicking the image.)

   The best journeys never go straight from Point A to Point B. They require detours!

   Like any great document, the Restoration of Williamsburg had many revisions over the years. We have had a couple buildings move around and out of the Historic Area. The longest move away belongs to Tazewell Hall, while the most recent move happened to the Cary Peyton Armistead House. Let's take a look at some of the other moves.


James Galt House


1935:

2015:

Custis Garden, July 28, 2015, 9:37am

   This image in the Architectural Record was cropped, so I apologize I don't have the full shot for this one, but it is pretty close. The foreground has stayed the same with the John Custis Garden in a Union Jack shape, but.... where is the James Galt House?!

   (Other changes include loss of a big tree in a corner of the garden, the fences trading their patterns, and many more plants growing.)

The James Galt House today on Tyler Street, 2015

   The Galt House has moved.

   The Galt House is an original building, located at first on the grounds of the Public Hospital / Eastern State Hospital, America's first mental hospital. The house's most famous resident, James Galt, was superintendent of the hospital during the 19th century. In 1929, the hospital donated the building to Colonial Williamsburg. Even though it had no 18th century building ever on the site, the Restoration team picked a lot across from Bruton Parish Church to fill out this part of town. A trestle bridge was built to transport it over a ravine to its new location. They planned to plan to eventually move it to a location of an unbuilt, similarly shaped building.

   In 1954, the Galt House moved again, this time to Tyler Street, outside of the Historic Area. It is still owned by Colonial Williamsburg, and is used as a private residence. Don't feel too bad for the house, next door is another original building that has moved a bit, the Powell-Hallam House. The Powell-Hallam House moved in 1928 from York Road (now York Street) so a new bypass road could be constructed (Lafayette Street). It moved to Francis Street to the right of the Moody House. It was there throughout the 40's, pictured in the 1947 book "Behold Williamsburg." It was eventually moved to Tyler Street.


Travis House / Greenhow Store


1935:

   "The Travis House, was moved bodily to its present location and restored upon the foundations of a Colonial house which had disappeared. The building, which originally stood on the northeast corner of Francis and Henry Streets, was presented to the Williamsburg Restoration by the Eastern State Hospital. It was erected on its original site in 1765 by Colonel Edward Champion Travis, who was a member of the House of Burgesses for 25 years. The foundations on which the Travis House now stands (fitting remarkably accurately) are those of a house owned by John Greenhow, a wealthy merchant of Williamsburg in the last half of the 18th Century."
- Architectural Record, Dec 1935

2015:

Looking East down Duke of Gloucester from Greenhow Store
August 2, 2015, 8:09am

   Today, Greenhow has reclaimed his land property. 

   In 1951, the Travis House closed up shop and was sent on its way. The John Greenhow Shop was finally rebuilt on its foundations shortly thereafter. The building was used as a private residence at first. In 1982, it was converted and opened as a mercantile store.

   Other than the obvious building-gone, new-building, mostly everything has changed. There are less trees along the lefthand side of Duke of Gloucester, and no plants or fence on the right. More buildings are now beyond the Travis/Greenhow site. Even the sidewalk we are looking down has changed bricks.

   Some things haven't changed. The bottom of the Courthouse on Market Square can be made out in 1935. One thing that seems odd is the brick path leading from the sidewalk to the main road. It does not line up with any of Greenhow's doors, so I'm putting my bets that this is the same path pictured in 1935 leading from the Travis House doorway. 

So where is the Travis House now?

Travis House, 2015
(Had to shoot from almost inside a bush to get the same perspective)

   The Travis House is back at its original location, the northeast corner of Francis and South Henry Streets.

   Prior to 1929, the Travis House had been used as the superintendent's house for the Eastern State Hospital. In order to build a new one, the hospital gave the building to CW. They moved it to the Greenhow location, using, like the Galt House, a trestle bridge to transport it across the same ravine inbetween it and DoG Street. I don't know if it was the same trestle bridge, I will keep doing research and see what I can find.

   In 1932, it opened as a restaurant. When King's Arms Tavern opened up in 1951, the Travis House closed and was temporarily moved to the southwestern corner of Francis and South Henry Street, diagonally from its original location. It was used most notably during its time there as the Jamestown Festival Commision headquarters and CW's Fife and Drum Corps home. In 1968, after Williamsburg bought the land from Eastern State Hospital, the Travis House moved back to its original site. This poor building, moved for a grand total of 3 times. It probably has the award for most moves in town.



Travis House at Night


1935:

2015:

Travis House at Night, August 2, 2015, 10:30pm

   The Travis House is the only building F.S. Lincoln took night pictures of. Perhaps because the building was open late for dinner, they wanted to advertise this unique selling point.

   Travis House is now not used at night. The lights are usually off (here you can see some basement lights on in the righthand side of the picture).

Unlike DoG Street, the Travis House is on Francis Street, an active car road, so it was fun/slightly terrifying trying not to get hit by cars to get this shot (long story short: I did not. It wasn't too busy).


Inside Travis House


1935:

2015:


   The Travis House is now used by Creative Services for CW's Marketing Department. The Dining Room in the picture is their conference room.

   All of the furniture and decorations are now modern office necessities. This is one of the few pictures in this collection where even if it was in black and white, you would still know it was not part of the 1930's or 18th century. The room has gone from an unknown light color (most likely white) with natural wood paneling, to yellow walls and white-painted wood.

   The unknown-to-me painting over the mantel has been replaced by the Travis House's sign (seen in action in the 1935 nighttime shot). I don't know if it is the actual sign or a reproduction. Either way, it is a great nod to the original tavern dining in town.



THANK YOU
   A great big thank you goes to Creative Services for allowing me access to the Travis House! Thanks for taking care of it!

Sources Used:
"The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg" Architectural Record, December 1935
"Behold Williamsburg" Book by Samuel Chamberlin. 1947
"Legacy from the Past," by the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1971
James Galt House Architectural Report
Powell Hallam House Architectural Report
"Travis House Moved to Original Site," CW News, August 21, 1968
"Greenhow Project under way," CW News, June 1982
The King's Arms Tavern and the Alexander Purdie House Architectural Report
The Public Hospital: An Architectural History and Chronicle of Reconstruction
Eastern State Hospital - History

View the whole 35/15 Project:
Introduction
Part 1 - College of William and Mary 
Part 2 - Merchants Square
Part 3 - Buildings that Move (You are currently viewing this one)
Part 4 - Market Square
Part 5 - Ludwell-Paradise
Part 6 - Queen Street to Botetourt Street
Part 7 - Raleigh Tavern
Part 8 - Paints
Part 9 - Botetourt Street to the Capitol Area
Part 10 - Capitol
Part 11 - No Longer Here
Part 12 - Francis and Nicholson Streets
Part 13 - Garden Edition
Part 14 - The Governor's Palace Gardens
Part 15 - Inside the Governor's Palace
Conclusion

Bonus 35/15 Posts:
35/15: A Dessert Order
35/15: Life in Williamsburg in 1935
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper II

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

35/15 Part 2 - Merchants Square

What is 35/15? Read the Introduction first.

(Note: All 1935 photographs are on the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library Omeka site. They are viewable by clicking the link provided, scrolling to the bottom of the page, then clicking the image.)


   After the College comes Merchants Square. When store buildings along Duke of Gloucester were bought up for the Restoration, new ones were built by the College. Called Merchants Square, the new shopping area opened in 1932. All of the fanciful exteriors were inspired from colonial style buildings in Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. The interiors could be changed to fit their lessees' needs. In 2005, Merchants Square was added to the National Register of Historic Places.


Merchants Square, Craft House


1935: 
Merchants Square A&P Food Market (Picture not used in AR)

2015:

Craft House of Merchants Square, August 2, 2015, 8:01am

   This view is looking southeast from the corner of Duke of Gloucester and North Henry Street.

   The pavement now imitates the dirt the street would have had in the 18th century, while making it easy to walk on for pedestrian traffic. Most curbs are gone due to this stretch of the street no longer being open to vehicular traffic

   In 1935, the building on the corner was home to an A&P Food Market. It was open from 1932-1959. From 1959-1983, it went through a few tenants, a gift shop and two antique stores on the first floor, most notably a Colonial Bowling Parlor in the basement, among others. In 1983, The Craft House opened up, and remains there to this day.


Post Office / Christmas Store


1935: 

2015:

The Christmas Shop in Merchant Square,
August 9, 2015, 9:20am

Unimpeded view of The Christmas Shop,
August 9, 2015, 9:20am

   In 1935, the city of Williamsburg was mainly still on Duke of Gloucester Street. Today, the city has spread out more. Municipal buildings are now not on the main stretch of the road. The post office has left Merchants Square. Williamsburg now has a couple, the closest to the Historic Area at 425 N. Boundary Street. A post office is still on Duke of Gloucester, but it is now a historic 18th century post office with limited mail services available. 

   The trees of 1935 are gone, as is the ivy and its wooden box. New plants and huge trees are now here, one tree blocking most of the 1935 view.

   For this picture, let's go building to building, starting from the left.

   In the leftmost shop was Pender's Grocery Store. For almost 50 years, this corner shop housed the Toymaker of Williamsburg Store, which closed in early 2014. The Everything Williamsburg Store now fills this space.

   The doorway and room left of the Post Office has now been demolished to create a breezeway to more shops on the backside of Merchants Square's main block.

   The Christmas Shop occupies the former Post Office left window and doorway. It is the oldest operating Christmas store in Williamsburg. The building itself is no longer painted white. Some has been left on, giving the building an aged, weathered look. New first floor windows and doorway jut out from the building, while flowerboxes hang from the second floor windows. Above the half-circle window at the top, the Post Office sign has been removed, but if you look carefully, you can still see evidence that something was there. The flagpole is also gone.

   The Trellis now occupies the rightmost window of the former Post Office, as well as the door and building to the right of the Post Office. Originally a Rexall Drugstore in 1935, The Trellis opened in November 1980. They have added an arbor and hanging grapevines along a ramp to their door.


John Blair House


1935: 

2015:

John Blair House, August 13, 2015, 12:48pm

   The John Blair house is an original building. He's a pretty spiffy guy. The building you can see in the background on the left in 1935 is now the front building of the William and Mary Barnes' and Noble Bookstore. The Bruton Parish Store now sits between that and Blair's House, built 1938-1939 (the store itself opened in 1995). The cupola peeking out in the far background was a bank, now the DoG Street Pub.

   Like the Brafferton and Wren Buildings, no plants are close to the building anymore. A lot more trees are growing on the Bruton Parish Store site. Where I am standing is under a new small tree, which might have replaced the tree pictured at the top of the 1935 image. 

   This was the second time I tried to capture this shot. The shadows at that hour move quickly. Blink, and you will miss the right angle.


Bruton Parish Church


1935:
Bruton Parish Church (Picture not used in AR)

2015:


Bruton Parish Church, August 22, 2015, 11:45am

   The church is one of our town's original buildings. Built 1711-1716, it still holds church services to an active congregation. W.A.R. Goodwin partially restored the church in 1905. It was completely restored in 1939. This building is not owned by Colonial Williamsburg, but is open to the public with a suggested donation (Trust me, it's worth it).

   If the trees weren't blocking as much, you would see the church steeple now has plainer walls on its upper wooden levels. It also lost its clock (this picture was not based on time because it was hard to read the time on the picture) (10:25am?). The steeple was restored to its current look in 1939. Gone are the shutters and ivy. The trees are much smaller in 2015 than the ones in 1935.


Duke of Gloucester Street, Towards Capitol


1935: 
View Towards Capitol (Picture not used in AR)

2015:

View Towards Capitol down Duke of Gloucester Street,
August 2, 2015, 5:36pm

   Unlike the caption on the Rockefeller Omeka stating "The east end of the Market Square lawn is visible in the foreground to the left," that lawn is actually the south end of the Palace Green.

   Beyond the Palace Green you can still see the Geddy House (which opened as a exhibition building in 1968). Way down the street is the Capitol and more trees. The right hand side of the street has changed dramatically. The building on the right in 1935 is the Travis House, where the Greenhow Store now stands. The Lumber House Ticket Office is now between our view and Greenhow. The road you can barely see on the right in 1935 is now gone (it led to a parking lot behind the Travis House).


But what happened to the Travis House? Find out in Part 3...


Sources Used:
"The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg" Architectural Record, December 1935
"Behold Williamsburg" Book by Samuel Chamberlin, 1947
"Williamsburg Before and After" Book by George Humphrey Yetter, 1988
Bruton Parish Church Architectural Record
Merchants Square - Colonial Williamsburg
Merchants Square - National Register of Historic Places
Bruton Parish Shop
Bruton Parish Church History
"Geddy House, Wetherburn Tavern Will Open as Exhibition Buildings By 1968," CW News, February 9, 1966
"Merchants Square welcomes new Trellis Restaurant," CW News, November 1980
"Merchants Square welcomes new Craft House," CW News, April 1983
"Looking Back..." CW News, April 1983
"Governor's Palace Approach" blueprint, pg 71 of Landscape Architecture magazine, January 1937.

View the whole 35/15 Project:
Introduction
Part 1 - College of William and Mary 
Part 2 - Merchants Square (You are currently viewing this one)
Part 3 - Buildings that Move
Part 4 - Market Square
Part 5 - Ludwell-Paradise
Part 6 - Queen Street to Botetourt Street
Part 7 - Raleigh Tavern
Part 8 - Paints
Part 9 - Botetourt Street to the Capitol Area
Part 10 - Capitol
Part 11 - No Longer Here
Part 12 - Francis and Nicholson Streets
Part 13 - Garden Edition
Part 14 - The Governor's Palace Gardens
Part 15 - Inside the Governor's Palace
Conclusion

Bonus 35/15 Posts:
35/15: A Dessert Order
35/15: Life in Williamsburg in 1935
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper II

Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Jolly about 35/15

One of my colonial co-workers, Mr. Jim Jolly, wrote a very nice post featuring the 35/15 Photo Project on his blog, "The Jolly Historian."

He himself has a terrific blog, specializing in articles on the American Civil War, Revolutionary War, trip reports to historic locations, and much, much more!

And, yes, he is very jolly, both in name and personality.

So, thank you again Jim for the shout-out! Again, if you are a fan of history, check out his blog.

Monday, August 24, 2015

35/15 Part 1 - The College

What is 35/15? Read the Introduction first.

(Note: All 1935 photographs are on the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library Omeka site. They are viewable by clicking the link provided, scrolling to the bottom of the page, then clicking the image.)

   Let us go on a walk down Duke of Gloucester Street. First stop is the College of William and Mary.

   Founded in 1693, the College of William and Mary has the honor of being America's second oldest higher academic institution, as well as operating America's oldest academic building, the Wren Building.


The Brafferton


1935: 

2015: 
The Brafferton, August 2, 2015, 5:47pm

   This is an original building, used originally as an Indian School. Unlike the other two, this one has never had a fire. 

   Added to the roof since 1935 is a water-catcher to divert most rainwater from rolling off the roof onto people coming through the doorway. Handrails have also been added to the sides of the stairs. Most of the changes occur in the yard. Gone are the shrubs and some of the trees, letting the architecture stand for itself, which it can, but leaving the building with a less-approachable feeling. This might have been done to protect the building foundations from plant roots trying to get through. The trees behind the Brafferton dwarf the building. An extra lamppost has been added to the right of the building.

   In the 1950's and 60's, The Brafferton served as offices for Alumni Services and rooms for W&M guests to stay in. The building now houses William and Mary's President and Provost offices.

   Perhaps due to the Presidents House looking nearly identical, Lincoln's picture of it was not included in the Architectural Record.


Botetourt Statue


1935: 

2015:
Wren Building and Botetourt statue, August 2, 2015, 11:20am

   Lord Botetourt (pronounced Bot-et-tot) was the royal governor of the colony Virginia from 1768 until his death in 1770. Virginians loved him so much they commissioned a statue of him in 1773, the only royal governor to receive such an honor in all the 13 colonies.

   At first glance, not much seems to have changed here, but not so. The statue of Lord B and his pedestal are now reproductions. This bronze reproduction is several inches higher than his marble predecessor due to his additional slate base. New Lord B also features a new right hand with scrolls (the original had been broken off shortly after the end of the American Revolution) (His head was broken off too, but that was saved and later put back on). The original picture was taken in spring, when the leaves are just starting to grow, whereas mine was in mid-summer. 

  The original Lord Botetourt was moved inside the Swem Library for safety in 1958. He came back into the spotlight in 1966 in his own gallery space in the Library basement. In 1993 the new statue was commissioned to complete the college yard yet again.

Original Lord Botetourt in Swem Library basement, 2015


Wren Building Entrance


1935: 

2015:
Wren Building Entrance, August 2, 2015, 11:25am

   Here is the Wren Building, the oldest academic building in America. It was built in 1695, burned in 1705, 1859, and 1862, and restored to its colonial appearance in 1928-1931.

   Whenever a clock was viewable in a picture, I took a picture following the clock time instead of matching the shadows. So here the shadows don't match because it is different times of the year, but it is at the same time.

   No more shrubs, no more ivy. No more benches. Trash barrels are here now. What remains is the beautiful Wren Building, the cannons, and the lamppost.


Wren Building, Blue Room


1935: 

2015:
Blue Room of the Wren Building, 2015
   This is a blue room on the second floor of the Wren Building. The only blue room. This room was used by administration, for meetings and for storing important school documents. Now, it is a conference/presentation space.

   The chairs are similar yet different. Gone are the chandeliers, in their place are candle wall sconces, standing candelabras, and candlesticks on the fireplace mantel. The portraits have also changed. George Washington has replaced Thomas Roderick Dew (College President 1836-1846). Dew has moved into the second floor hallway in the Wren Building. The other picture (not anywhere else in the Wren Building, so I do not know who they are) was replaced by Bishop Henry Compton, first chancellor of the College.

Portrait of Thomas Roderick Dew, 2015

Wren Building, Great Hall


1935: 

2015:
Great Hall of the Wren Building, 2015

   The Great Hall historically was a dining hall and multipurpose space. Before the Capitol was built, the General Assembly met here between 1700 and 1705, and again in 1747 when the Capitol burned down.

   The (heavy) tables and benches are the same, just pushed against the wall. The George Washington bust is no longer lurking in the corner. The wall sconces and paintings have been changed out and the chandeliers are gone. The painting over the fireplace is that of Queen Anne, who gave funds to repair the building after the 1705 fire.


Wren Building, Chapel


1935: 

2015:
Wren Chapel, August 12, 2015, 10:05am

   One of the three original schools in William and Mary was the Divinity School. Thus a chapel was needed and built as part of the Wren Building in 1732. This beautiful space is now used for religious purposes for any faith, as well as weddings.

   The 1935 shot features a clock at 10:05am, which in 2015 has disappeared, along with the railings' curtains. The coat of arms, King George II's, previously above the clock, now rests where it once stood. The second floor back window, while still there, is now blocked by an organ.

   Unlike all the other chandeliers pictured in the 1935 Wren Building, one seems to have remained here. It is now hanging significantly lower. Sconces and plaques have been added to the walls. Plaques were added by the late 40's, honoring the memories of notable presidents, alumni, and friends of the College.

   The book in the forefront has also changed from a bible to my bible for this project. The second book's stand from 1935 was in the Great Hall when I was taking these. Hopefully the candles are not the same ones. The candlesticks most surely are not, their bases changing from triangles to circles.


Sources Used:
The Brafferton - W&M
William & Mary Wiki - Boutetourt and his Statue
"Behold Williamsburg" Book by Samuel Chamberlin. 1947.
The Wren Building - W&M
"The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg" Architectural Record, December 1935
"A Self-Guided Tour of The Sir Christopher Wren Building" Pamphlet offered in the Wren Building


View the whole 35/15 Project:
Introduction
Part 1 - College of William and Mary (You are currently viewing this one)
Part 2 - Merchants Square
Part 3 - Buildings that Move
Part 4 - Market Square
Part 5 - Ludwell-Paradise
Part 6 - Queen Street to Botetourt Street
Part 7 - Raleigh Tavern
Part 8 - Paints
Part 9 - Botetourt Street to the Capitol Area
Part 10 - Capitol
Part 11 - No Longer Here
Part 12 - Francis and Nicholson Streets
Part 13 - Garden Edition
Part 14 - The Governor's Palace Gardens
Part 15 - Inside the Governor's Palace
Conclusion

Bonus 35/15 Posts:
35/15: A Dessert Order
35/15: Life in Williamsburg in 1935
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper II

Friday, August 7, 2015

35/15 Photo Project - Introduction


   As some of you know, I am a costumed 18th century interpreter this summer at Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia. In my free time, I have been taking pictures around town for what I am calling the 35/15 Photo Project.

   Before I can talk about the project, a little background information is needed.

   Williamsburg was the capital of the colony of Virginia from 1699 to 1780. When the capital moved to Richmond in 1780, people (and money) moved as well, leaving the city to metaphorically freeze in time. Fast forward to the twentieth century, Williamsburg finally started to modernize. Falling-down 18th century buildings were replaced by modern ones. At the same time, the Rector at Bruton Parish Church, W.A.R. Goodwin, had a dream to bring Williamsburg back to the colonial era, so "That the future may learn from the past." After many fruitless attempts, he was able to convince John D. Rockefeller, Jr. to share his dream and finance the project. From 1926 to 1935, the town of Williamsburg transformed back to its colonial roots, becoming one of the first town-wide preservation effort in America. Eighty-eight 18th century buildings were saved and restored, while others were reconstructed using archaeology, research, and oral recollections. Since then, Williamsburg has become a mecca for families, colonial history, and preservation research.

   Once the initial Restoration was complete, Colonial Williamsburg hired F.S. Lincoln in 1935 to photograph the historic area. Lincoln (1894-1976) was a prominent architectural photographer from the 1930's to the 60's. His Williamsburg photographs were showcased full page in the December 1935 issue of Architectural Record, along with write-ups from the Restoration's architects, garden layouts, blueprint samples, and paint colors. These were some of the first images the world saw of the restored colonial capitol. The issue became so popular, the Williamsburg section of the issue was reprinted as a hardcover book - "The Restoration of Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia." F.S. Lincoln made additional trips to Williamsburg in 1936 to photograph more, and an additional photo article appeared in Architectural Record in November 1936. Lincoln took over 200 photos. All are available to see from the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library's Omeka site HERE.

My copy of the December 1935 Architectural Record

   So, in honor of the pictures' 80th anniversary, I am re-shooting his images to see how our "18th century" has changed from 1935 to 2015. The goal is to shoot exactly from where Lincoln shot, with the same/similar shadows.

   There will be some technical differences. Lincoln and I have different cameras, not just in film and digital, but in camera lens' view shape and size. Lincoln had a bigger viewing window than my camera has, so some things might not fit entirely in the shot while keeping the same perspective. I also do not know when he took all of his pictures, and shadows unfortunately change throughout the year, so I might line up some shadows while others are way off.

   Most of the comparisons will be from photos that appear in the December 1935 Architectural Record (including some that are not taken by Lincoln). I will be reproducing some of Lincoln's other Williamsburg pictures, and, if time allows, I may also take requests.

It has been fun so far -- hope you enjoy it as well!


Learn more about F.S. Lincoln with Colonial Williamsburg's background information on him HERE.


Ludwell-Paradise House and Prentis Store
in 1935 and 2015

View the whole 35/15 Project:
Introduction (You are currently viewing this one)
Part 1 - College of William and Mary 
Part 2 - Merchants Square
Part 3 - Buildings that Move
Part 4 - Market Square
Part 5 - Ludwell-Paradise
Part 6 - Queen Street to Botetourt Street
Part 7 - Raleigh Tavern
Part 8 - Paints
Part 9 - Botetourt Street to the Capitol Area
Part 10 - Capitol
Part 11 - No Longer Here
Part 12 - Francis and Nicholson Streets
Part 13 - Garden Edition
Part 14 - The Governor's Palace Gardens
Part 15 - Inside the Governor's Palace
Conclusion

Bonus 35/15 Posts:
35/15: A Dessert Order
35/15: Life in Williamsburg in 1935
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper
35/15: Governor's Palace Wallpaper II

Monday, August 3, 2015

Ferguson Memorial Mural


   An article on my May mural project just got published on the Christopher Newport College First Decaders' Website. Feel free to check it out, as well as all of their other articles and features. There is plenty to see on there!

Update: The First Decaders' Website publishes new articles on their home page every two weeks. The mural article is now on another page with other retired articles. Visit it here, then to quickly scroll to it, use Find in your web browser and type in "Mural."